Thursday, December 23, 2010
A book as layered as Anna Karenina is hardly explained through any particular theme or genre. Tolstoy believed in the novel as a treatise on life, and to reduce this work to a story of romances interlaced with episodes of “realism” would be to miss the point. My first thought after finishing the last page was that the romances were used by Tolstoy to point us towards the larger love that IS. The tragic element of the love myth is emblematic in the main character’s fate, and the base desires of the libido are interspersed at various points throughout the book. The search for the higher love of the universal is best portrayed in the philosophical yearnings of the character Levin, Tolstoy’s alter ego in the novel, and the character that I most identify with as well.
The great artists must have a deep understanding of life, first of themselves, and then of others. Understanding of self leads to understanding of others through those embodied interconnections that are what makes us human. Through being able to clearly identify those incoming and outgoing signals in relation to our own humanity means that we can also understand the other. When Tolstoy addresses death in the book, he uses this embodied understanding in the character of Kitty dealing with Levin’s brother. Levin had all the intellectual knowledge in the world about death, but it took the understanding of the reality of death, apart from the abstract, for death to be dealt with. Kitty had the ability of empathy, that element of love, which was essential in the context of the situation. Levin was only to develop that ability later, and through a different path…which was illustrative of one of the many subtleties that Tolstoy incorporates into his writing.
Anna was searching; she was going through the normality of life. However, Tolstoy made the book real in the sense that Anna, as the main character, was the one person who we thought had a handle on “who she was”. Anyone would have been attracted to Anna, and everyone was. However, as much as Anna seemed to transcend the absurdities of society, and to be able to see right through it, she was still looking at it from a vantage point that left nothing to be seen past it. We saw this with a lot of the characters, and this was one of the fascinating elements that Tolstoy incorporated. “Realism” as the style of this type of writing was apt as the book took us down many paths where I thought I knew the character, only to be confronted with some element of their personality that blindsided me. Tolstoy gave us the idea of the character, and let the reality develop on its own and in its time.
This was a book that was written over a period of four years. We can see Tolstoy’s view on life developing, especially at the end of the book, with the existential and spiritual crisis that we find Levin articulating. Levin eventually discovers his peace, as did Tolstoy in his own life. From that point on in Tolstoy’s life and writings, he further incorporated his convictions of nonviolent Christian anarchism…or resistance to power structures through a life lived with the highest principle of love. Love as power, and not power as power was what Tolstoy believed in and exemplified.
I became fascinated with Tolstoy from a course on nonviolence that I took at Eastern Mennonite University this past semester. Hearing that Tolstoy had a huge influence on Gandhi and MLK made me resolve to dive into his works the minute I had the chance. Through further research, I can see that Tolstoy went through the same restlessness that I’ve gone through in my own life, and that many of us go through. Ultimate meaning for him meant seeing himself in the other, and seeing the divine or the universal in all of us and through all of us. This continues to be the common thread that is always presenting itself to me, and that I find in scriptures, philosophy, metaphysics, art, literature and music. Perhaps it’s the paradigm I’m incorporating to view life, but it’s the only paradigm I’ve discovered that makes sense.
There is a line that runs through the philosophy of Tolstoy as portrayed in Anna Karenina. It is a line that Levin discovers at the end of the book, and is grounded in Levin’s heritage. Levin acknowledges the narrative structure of the individual life, and starts to make sense of his own story just as the book ends. This is what can be said to be the discovery of voice. Tolstoy certainly found his, and recognizing what he discovered as the foundation of his voice is the key to understanding Anna Karenina, and is the key to understanding life.
Tuesday, December 21, 2010
Over the years, this form of vocal delivery became second nature, and if I was to think of an image of the person to whom I was speaking, it would be vague, indistinguishable, faceless and nameless. The sociologist George Herbert Mead came up with the concept of the “Generalized Other”, which might be an apt description, for even though I was talking to a single person, that person represented the common understanding of all other individuals just like her, so there was a universal element to my delivery. Language obviously was central to this universality; however there was no true individuality, either from me or reciprocated from my audience. Everyone in this exchange engaged in a layer of culture that was superficial and concentric, for although I was talking to one person, I was also talking to society at large, in the language of that society (Collins, 1994) (Connolly, 2002).
Radio and media attempt to turn the concentric around and bring the superficial or surface elements of culture back to the individual, instead of out from the individual. Either way, this paradigm is illusory to authentic identity. I cannot possibly reveal any sort of my true nature through this mode of communication, nor can the listener learn anything about her identity through the reception of this message from the radio. However, if it is the authentic that one is attempting to avoid, then media, entertainment and other forms of escapism are the perfect avenues.
The example of my past career is a part of a narrative, a layer of my narrative, therefore a part of me, but only on a surface level. William E. Connolly talks about layers of perception, thinking and culture, while James McClendon refers to narrative ethics as being the only true way to see morality; that is, to see it as a story. I find no dissonance in combining the two concepts in the form of narratives having their own layers. Perhaps the media/career aspect of my life was an outer layer, one that was most susceptible to adjustments from the elements. It was unprotected, constantly changing, having no real substance, completely transparent (Connolly, 2002) (McClendon, 2002).
An Anabaptist Heritage
This essay is an attempt to articulate the process in which I now find myself; the process of returning to the innermost layers of my narrative to define what living a good, ethical life means to me in the context of the part of the universal from which my story is shaped. I am learning to acknowledge my heritage, my Anabaptist heritage, because I have reached a point where that acknowledgement no longer frightens me. It has become painfully obvious to me that the main reason people run from true identity is the perceived sacrifices that they believe they might have to make if they peel back their layers. The outermost protection that they think they have is often the most harmful element of their lives. This is where we start to hear clichés about the difficulty of leaving one’s “comfort zone”.
When Christ talked about denying self, he wasn’t referring to the denial of who we are, he was trying to help us remove the construct of society, the caricature, the costume, the distortion, that was covering up our true identity. It was only in that discovery of identity that the divine could be found, and therefore the love that could be extended to others. Some traditions, such as Hinduism, may refer to this in different ways, such as the removal of the ego standing in the way of Atman. Understanding heritage in the context of narrative is to understand a part of the life-giving process.
Heritage clearly has a tie to the past, but what is that tie? Isn’t it a coming out of an endless set of contexts, going further and further back, an eternal sense of the ever present now that transforms into the future? Our role in the heritage is to take the past as a starting point, a grounding and a place where we’ve grown out of the universal God /grain of life, and then transform that past into the present where we find the embodied self.
Heritage and Ethics
At Eastern Mennonite University, studying under Dr. Christian Early, I was told that “the better we understand who we are, the more grounded our ethics will be” (Early C., Ethics Lecture, 2010). There is a tension in that statement, a conflict of opposites, because self-discovery through a look at heritage will involve pain as well as pleasure. But pain, adversity, uncertainty, even suffering, are often necessary parts of forward movement, for they create questions, and it is through questioning that we discover.
This discovery of self, at any level, can only be navigated by the embodied self. Referencing Antonio Damasio, the feelings and emotions that influence and guide us are received through the body, but I must question from where they originate (Damasio, 2003). Could many of these feelings arrive out of the body itself, out of a past life? I’m not referring to reincarnation, but to the connection that heritage brings into our lives. To state this in a somewhat scientific manner, we embody the genetics of our heritage; we carry the blood of those who came before and their actual DNA. Traced back far enough, we could even say that we are the embodied community of all humanity. The parallels between the universal soul/consciousness/Atman/Brahman/Allah/God and this embodiment are not to be missed.
So, my mother’s parents met and married in the context of a close knit community of Anabaptists that included the Swartz and Jantzi people. These people had traveled to America together, and set up a life and a style of worship together. It is said that they were known to “share earthly possessions, as well as joys and sorrows” (Swartz). They were a people who loved life, and knew how to work hard and intelligently, while desiring to better the world around them.
A Narrative of Service
The restless energy of service is evident in my more recent family history. I remember my grandparents as being full of the kind of life and laughter that can only come out of that knowledge of the self that desires to care for the humanity of the other. This energy was transferred to their children, and is evident in my mother, who has served as a nurse, pastoral counselor, and care-giver to her parents at their life’s end, as well as to my sister and I in our youth, and most recently to me as an adult following my near-fatal car accident. My mother’s work has always poured out of a life filled with the highest of moral standards, love and the desire to work for people rather than the material. This is a common theme throughout my maternal family narrative.
The energy of service is evident in my mother’s brother, Vernon Jantzi, who is a familiar name and figure on the Eastern Mennonite University campus and community, as well as the various communities with which he has participated through his years with Mennonite Central Committee. Vernon has taken on the role of a sage figure to me. He embodies all that is good about the Anabaptist tradition, and is a model as to what it means to live out, through the powerful practices of virtue spoken of by McClendon, a morally upright ethical life; one that has to be taken as a narrative to be understood (McClendon, 2002). His direct actions for peace, such as his work to help establish the Center for Justice and Peacebuilding on EMU’s campus, resonates both forward, back and horizontally in his own heritage. By horizontally, I mean that his peaceful actions are congruent. His narrative is consistent, authentic, and reflects his own path to discovery through heritage. His various roles of uncle, husband, father, grandfather, teacher, mentor, scholar, leader, activist, university administrator and advisor are all in line with a universal love ethic. He is a man who knows himself, in the truest sense of knowledge.
My mother’s sister Sharon and Sharon’s husband Herb show a similar narrative in their lives. They have a passion for the African continent, and their children were born in Ethiopia during their nearly two decades of service to that country. Their approach to missions, like Vernon’s has never been of the “beneficiary” mentality; meaning they don’t practice a mission characteristic of hubris. They look to learn from others more than they hope to teach others.
A Love Lesson
I agree with the idea that the primary narrative of humanity is a love story. I credit Dr. Christian Early with that idea, and its corollary of the tragic element in love. The past couple of years have seen numerous life-shaping rifts in time (spoken of by Connolly) that have revealed tragedy in my own narrative, but through the tragedy has come a greater love and awareness (Connolly, 2002). One rift, which I have mentioned in a previous writing, was a near-fatal car accident in the summer of 2009. Another rift was a unique intellectual awakening that I can clearly see in hindsight as I look back on the spring of 2010. It was a period where I encountered the writings of Richard Rohr, and was introduced to the concept of mystical non-dualism for the first time (Rohr, 2009). That rift was followed by the discarding of labels and beliefs that were blocking my own vision of identity. There was a great deal of clarity immediately following my car accident. There was a great deal more with that second rift this past spring. Both rifts involved a letting go, and I’ve found that the more I can discard attachments, the more I am able to comprehend concepts, ideas, history, knowledge, and the more I am enabled in the examination of heritage.
In a way, I may have more questions now than I’ve ever had in my life, but I consider that a sign that I’m able to name what I’m trying to answer. When, for example, I’m able to recognize and therefore question why I’ve always been restless, I can look to the heritage of my family narrative for some of the answers. Perhaps the restlessness, pain, struggle and redemption of the Jewish people is encoded in my DNA. The Jews are a historically restless people both literally and figuratively, but they have also been commanded and called out by God to an ethical narrative that incorporates love, service, and humility. The idea of homeland is very important to them, but it is something that has been evasive and insecure throughout their history. Now, we can see their pain exemplified in a tragic way by their desperate struggle to retain their homeland by the harming of others. This goes against the divine, and will only involve more tragedy in their cultural narrative unless they can learn to recognize that their calling out does not place them on a morally, ethically or physically superior level to the rest of humanity, but requires them to be an example of how to practice validation and recognition of all who live.
Collins, R. (1994). four sociological traditions. New York: Oxford University Press.
Connolly, W. E. (2002). Neuropolitics: thinking, culture, speed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Damasio, A. (2003). Lookng for spinoza: joy, sorrow, and the feeling brain. Orlando: Harcourt, Inc.
Early, A. (Performer). (2010, December 6). Attachment Theory Lecture. Eastern Mennonite University, Harrisonburg, Virginia, USA.
Early, C. (Performer). (2010, December 10). Ethics Lecture. Eastern Mennonite University, Harrisonburg, Virginia, USA.
Early, C. (Performer). (2010, December 1). Ethics Lecture. Eastern Mennonite University, Harrisonburg, Virginia, USA.
Early, C. (Performer). (2010, September 24). Ethics Lecture. Eastern Mennonite University, Harrisonburg, Virginia, USA.
Jung, C. (1976). The portable carl jung. New York: Penguin Group.
McClendon, J. (2002). Ethics: systematic theology, volume 1. Nashville: Abingdon Press.
Rohr, R. (2009). The naked now: learning to see as the mystics see. New York: The Crossroad Publishing Company.
Swartz, M. Swartz History.
By coming here tonight, you are making possible a trip for life and for peace”, said Greenpeace co-founder Irving Stowe to the crowd of 10,000 gathered on the evening of October 16th, 1970 in Vancouver, British Columbia (Amchitka, 2009). The event was the Amchitka benefit concert, and not only was it the launching pad for Greenpeace as an environmental organization, but it also marked the beginning of the marriage between Greenpeace and musical activists.
Although Greenpeace was founded out of that concert, no one really knew the current name of the organization until almost a year later. The Amchitka concert was an effort by Stowe to raise money intended to fund a protest-by-sea against the U.S. nuclear testing facility on the Amchitka Island of the Aleutian chain, a part of Alaska. The three headliners of the show would have been a music lover’s dream at the time, and they were all in the prime of their careers: Joni Mitchell, her then boyfriend James Taylor and Phil Ochs. They all agreed to perform for free, and Mitchell and Taylor have continued to support Greenpeace to this day (Ochs having passed away in 1974) (Greenpeace, 2010) (Kurutz, 2009).
The Initial Mission
The concert ended up being a huge success, raising enough money to fund the initial activity of the boat that had been renamed the Greenpeace for the inaugurating voyage in September of 1971. The group of ragtag activists, hippies and lawyers on board had formed a loosely knit organization called “The Don’t Stop the Wave Committee” before the Amchitka concert, but after the voyage, they believed the only good thing to come out of the trip was that they had finally settled on the name Greenpeace, taken from their sailing vessel (Greenpeace, 2010).
The plan for the mission was to park the Greenpeace right in front of the nuclear facility on Amchitka Island, but the boat was lightly rammed and ordered to abort by a U.S. navy boat, albeit manned by sailors who were in fact sympathetic to the cause. This turnaround in the middle of the course was discouraging to the crew of the Greenpeace, and they thought the entire year to be a wasted effort until they arrived back in Vancouver and discovered that they had received unprecedented media attention from around the world. The particular nuclear test that they were protesting did happen, but many future tests did not, as Amchitka was shut down by the U.S. government five months later, and Greenpeace was officially in business (Greenpeace, 2010).
The Perfect Match
Greenpeace is now one of the most visible environmental organizations in the world. They are involved in a broad spectrum of environmental issues from climate change, ocean and forest preservation, anti-nuclear causes, promotion of a toxic free future, sustainable agriculture and visible protest activism. Greenpeace has long recognized their mission as being a perfect match for the passion and spirit of many artists and musicians, and they have pursued these artists as much as the artists have pursued them (Carothers, 1989).
At the beginning, the artists at the Amchitka concert and the founders of the organization would literally have hung out in very similar scenes, with both parties coming directly out of the 60’s counter-culture movement. “When I encountered the people at Greenpeace, and saw the work that they were doing, and they way they engaged this [environmental] problem, I felt a huge sense of relief that people were working on it” said James Taylor in 2009 upon the long-awaited public release of the recording of that landmark show. Both Taylor and Mitchell have agreed to donate all proceeds from the sale of the recording to Greenpeace (Amchitka, 2009).
Other artists that have done significant activism over the years for Greenpeace include U2, Annie Lenox, Sting, Michael Stipe of R.E.M., Peter Gabriel, Public Enemy, Chrissie Hynde, Jerry Garcia, Sade, Green Day, Pink, Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers, Bryan Adams, Jack Johnson, and many more who have supported the organization in principle (Greenpeace, 2010) (Carother, 1989).
The Personal Factor of U2
Growing up on the music of U2, Greenpeace was literally the first environmental organization I’d heard of. Since then, I’ve always had respect for Greenpeace, in large part due to that initial visibility provided by U2. There was a period of time in the late 80’s/early 90’s when Greenpeace was the sole organization officially supported by the band (Flanagan, 1996). So, I can personally attest to the benefit Greenpeace sees in uniting with artists (especially those more politically, socially and sustainably inclined) to increase the awareness they’re trying to promote, as Greenpeace was effective in attracting me through this method.
U2 was involved in one of the most visible Greenpeace events in history with the Sellafield concert and subsequent protest action in June of 1992. U2 and Public Enemy headlined the concert, which was held near the Sellafield nuclear facility on the coast of England bordering the Irish Sea. Sellafield had been dumping radioactive waste into the Irish Sea for some time, causing increased cancer rates around the site, but the final straw for Greenpeace and the bands was when Sellafield decided to open a second facility to take on the radioactive waste of other countries. This was too much, and the fact that Ireland, Wales and Scotland were seeing some of the worst of the effects only angered the band that much further, especially considering that Sellafield was directly owned by the British Government (Flanagan, 1996).
Sellafield had obtained an injunction prohibiting U2 from setting foot anywhere near the actual facility, but no matter. The thought was that if they entered by sea the injunction couldn’t be enforced. So, the members of the band sailed in rubber rafts with three drums of radioactive sand from the beaches of the UK, and deposited them at the front gate of Sellafield (which was basically right on the Irish Sea anyway). Overall, the project was a success in the sense that it brought awareness to a facility that was previously unknown to the masses (Flanagan, 1996).
In researching this topic, I initially approached it from the vantage point of why artists were particularly attracted to Greenpeace. It was only through research that I discovered the attraction actually went both ways. Still, I have wondered what is it about environmental organizations or any socially conscious causes that seems to draw artists; at least more so than other types of people.
I discovered a quote from Annie Lenox that I think is illuminating to this question: “Music is the language of the soul articulated,” she says. “The inner world is very potent for me – I don’t ascribe to any God or Jesus or Buddha – I just have a sense of it and revere it along with the natural world and human consciousness” (Drakakis, 2010). I think all artists, like Annie, have a sense of the unity, the one great force that is the universe, even if they don’t acknowledge it.
Having been around and interviewed many artists during my radio career, they all seem to recognize something bigger than themselves that gives them their creative inspiration. Most can’t explain where it comes from, but they sense something, and they have that unique passion that drives them to purpose. I feel that same passion, and it is a uniting feeling. It causes one to question the world around them, and when questioning starts, the questions inevitably lead to “how can we do this better; make this world better?” These questions can be equally applied to the artist’s music, or their environmental consciousness, and striving to answer this question has been Greenpeace’s mission as well.
I think the efforts that Greenpeace has taken over the years to engage artists is exemplary, is unique, and is to be commended. They have not altered their message to attract these artists, they’ve not had to. The original crew of the Greenpeace sailed with the theme of “bear witness” which they took from the Quaker pacifist tradition (Greenpeace, 2010). Continuing to honor this practice will keep the actions of Greenpeace and our own actions in line with the grain of the universe, and that grain is hope, love and unity. When we practice the genuine good in life, everything else falls into step. May we all continue to question how to make this world a better place to live.
Amchitka. (2010). Retrieved from Amchitka Concert Web site: http://www.amchitka-concert.com/
Carothers, A. (1989, November 1). Can rock 'n' roll save the world?: music's mission to moscow and beyond. Retrieved from @U2: http://www.atu2.com/news/can-rock-n-roll-save-the-world.html
Drakakis, H. (2010, November 29). Annie lenox: Music icon and Woman of the Year on drug-taking, adopting children in Africa and redefining feminism. Retrieved from The Big Issue in Soctland Web site: http://www.bigissuescotland.com/features/view/423
Flanagan, B. (1996). U2: at the end of the world. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc.
Greenpeace. (2010). Retrieved from Greenpeace Web site: http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/
Kurutz, S. (2009, November 22). Speakeasy: Lost 1970 Amchitka Concert Featuring Joni Mitchell and James Taylor Surfaces. Retrieved from Wall Street Journal Blogs Web site: http://blogs.wsj.com/speakeasy/2009/11/22/a-long-lost-1970-benefit-concert-featuring-joni-mitchell-and-james-taylor-surfaces/